Septic arthritis is a condition of bone disorder caused predominantly by Staphylococcus aureus. Following the bacterial entry activated immune cells specially macrophages and dendritic cells release pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β etc., which not only create an inflammatory microenvironment but also play crucial roles in the proliferation of different CD+ T cell subsets. Among them, Th17 and Tregs are of major concern in recent times because of their potential roles in regulating the ongoing inflammation in many diseases including experimental arthritis. But the downstream signalling mechanism of these cells in regulating the severity of inflammation in case of septic arthritis is not known yet. So, here we have established a murine model of S. aureus induced septic arthritis and kept the animal upto 15 days post-infection. To examine the signalling mechanism, Th17 and Treg cells were isolated from blood, spleen and synovial joints of control and infected mice and observed the expression of JNK, NFκB and RANKL in the lysate of isolated Th17 and Tregs. We have also estimated the levels of serum IL-21 and TGF-β. NFκB, JNK and RANKL expression was found to be higher at 3 and 15 days post-infection along with serum IL-21 levels. On the other hand, maximum TGF-β level was observed at 9 days post-infection along with increased Treg population. In conclusion it was hypothesized that bone resorption is related with downstream signalling pathways of Th17 cells, which stimulate osteoclast generation via NFκB/JNK-RANKL axis and helps in the persistence of the disease.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.