Lipid metabolism play an essential role in occurrence and development of asthma, and it can be disturbed by phthalate esters (PAEs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). As a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, the occurrence risk of childhood asthma is increased by PAEs and OPFRs exposure, but it remains not entirely clear how PAEs and OPFRs contribute the onset and progress of the disease. We have profiled the serum levels of PAEs and OPFRs congeners by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and its relationships with the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in asthmatic, bronchitic (acute inflammation) and healthy (non-inflammation) children. Eight PAEs and nine OPFRs congeners were found in the serum of children (1 – 5 years old) from Shenzhen, and their total median levels were 615.16 ng/mL and 17.06 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover, the serum levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), tri-propyl phosphate (TPP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP) were significant higher in asthmatic children than in healthy and bronchitic children as control. Thirty-one characteristic lipids and fatty acids of asthma were screened by machine-learning random forest model based on serum lipidome data, and the alterations of inflammatory characteristic lipids and fatty acids including palmitic acids, 12,13-DiHODE, 14,21-DiHDHA, prostaglandin D2 and LysoPA(18:2) showed significant correlated with high serum levels of MMP, TPP and TNBP. These results imply PAEs and OPFRs promote the occurrence of childhood asthma via disrupting inflammatory lipid and fatty acid metabolism, and provide a novel sight for better understanding the effects of plastic additives on childhood asthma.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.