Current topics in microbiology and immunology 2017 07 08() doi 10.1007/82_2017_29
Cells use an elaborate innate immune surveillance and defense system against virus infections. Here, we discuss recent studies that reveal how HIV-1 is sensed by the innate immune system. Furthermore, we present mechanisms on the counteraction of HIV-1. We will provide an overview how HIV-1 actively utilizes host cellular factors to avoid sensing. Additionally, we will summarize effectors of the innate response that provide an antiviral cellular state. HIV-1 has evolved passive mechanism to avoid restriction and to regulate the innate response. We review in detail two prominent examples of these cellular factors: (i) NLRX1, a negative regulator of the innate response that HIV-1 actively usurps to block cytosolic innate sensing; (ii) SAMHD1, a restriction factor blocking the virus at the reverse transcription step that HIV-1 passively avoids to escape sensing.