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Role of Innate Genes in HIV Replication.

Role of Innate Genes in HIV Replication.
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Schott K, Riess M, König R,


Schott K, Riess M, König R, (click to view)

Schott K, Riess M, König R,

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Current topics in microbiology and immunology 2017 07 08() doi 10.1007/82_2017_29

Abstract

Cells use an elaborate innate immune surveillance and defense system against virus infections. Here, we discuss recent studies that reveal how HIV-1 is sensed by the innate immune system. Furthermore, we present mechanisms on the counteraction of HIV-1. We will provide an overview how HIV-1 actively utilizes host cellular factors to avoid sensing. Additionally, we will summarize effectors of the innate response that provide an antiviral cellular state. HIV-1 has evolved passive mechanism to avoid restriction and to regulate the innate response. We review in detail two prominent examples of these cellular factors: (i) NLRX1, a negative regulator of the innate response that HIV-1 actively usurps to block cytosolic innate sensing; (ii) SAMHD1, a restriction factor blocking the virus at the reverse transcription step that HIV-1 passively avoids to escape sensing.

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