Hypertension in pregnancy 2017 10 17() 1-7 doi 10.1080/10641955.2017.1385793
Both HIV infection and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with considerable maternal mortality in South Africa. This study was designed to compare the urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), calbindin, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HIV associated normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies.
Following ethical approval and written consent, urine samples were collected from HIV negative (HIV -ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV positive (HIV +ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV -ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) and HIV +ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) women. The concentrations of KIM-1, calbindin, IL-18 and MCP-1 were assessed using the Bioplex technology.
In contrast to IL-18 (p > 0.05) and MCP-1 (p > 0.05), the concentrations of KIM-1 (p = 0.02) and calbindin (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in PE compared to normotensive pregnancies, irrespective of HIV status. Based on HIV status, all 4 analytes were similar between HIV+ve and HIV-ve groups. Urinary KIM-1 levels in the HIV -ve pre-eclamptics were significantly higher than those in the HIV -ve women with normal pregnancies (p = 0.007). The maternal hypertension and/or HIV profile has no marked impact on the fetal weight.
Our results demonstrate an increase in the urinary level of kidney injury molecule-1 and calbindin in PE, implicating their possible value as biomarkers of kidney injury. We observed no differences in the levels of KIM-1, IL-18, MCP-1 and calbindin based on HIV status. We propose that studies with larger sample sizes using these markers be conducted to establish their use as markers of diagnosing kidney injury in PE.