In reaction to environmental stressors and other stimuli, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene transcription. MiRNAs have been shown to have a function in inflammation and immunology, and new data shows that miRNAs may also play a role in allergic asthma. Studies on the differential expression of miRNAs in bodily fluids between asthma patients and controls, as well as their involvement in immune cell subsets, have been reported. The future development of miRNAs in treatment has been discussed. MiRNA-146a has been linked to autoimmunity and allergic inflammation, whereas miRNA-155 has been linked to the development of atopy. In mice models of asthma, targeting miRNA-1 and miRNA-145 has been shown to reduce lung inflammation. Although these latest discoveries must be verified, miRNAs might be valuable as disease biomarkers. Their use as therapeutic targets in the lung, however, is unknown.

Circulating miRNAs might be used as indicators of disease state or therapeutic response. The role of miRNAs in asthma treatment is still being researched.