Probiotics and their food sources, prebiotics, are known to have qualities that help with gastrointestinal issues along with overall improvement in health and well-being. Pro- and prebiotics play a key role in neuroimmune processes. Their beneficial effects on health are linked to interactions of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system, and neurologic systems. The interaction between the microflora-gut-brain axis has a profound effect on brain function, thereby influencing the overall well-being of an individual. Nutritionists, researchers, regulatory bodies (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization), pharmaceutical, and food manufacturers are currently engaged in enhancing the potential of nutrition in health maintenance and disease prevention. Nutrition has the potential to increase psychological well-being and could be used much as are psychiatric drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics have evolved as promising therapeutic techniques to treat several disease conditions associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this review was to provide useful information about the use of probiotics and prebiotics in mitigation of various diseases such as COVID-19, congenital heart disease, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, hypertension, genitourinary tract infection, colon cancer, immune system defense, mineral absorption, allergic disorders, and atopic dermatitis.
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