Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures in children younger than 5 years. In the last decade, various coding and noncoding sequence variations of voltage-gated sodium channels SCN2A have been identified in patients with seizures, implying their genetic base. We aimed to evaluate the association between SCN2A c. G/A genetic polymorphism among Egyptian children with febrile seizure plus.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 epileptic infants and children, attendants of the Neurology Unit, pediatric department, Menoufia University Hospitals (Group Ι). The patients were sub-classified into two groups, according to response to anti-epileptic treatment; Group Ι a (drug responder) and Group Ι b (drug-resistant). Evenly divided number of apparently healthy, age and gender-matched children were selected as controls (Group II). A complete history, throughout the systemic examination and radiological & metabolic assessment, whenever needed was provided, all participants were genotyped for SCN2A rs17183814polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Both of A allele and AA, GA genotypes of SCN2A c. 56 G/A were detected more in patients with febrile seizure plus comparison to the control group with a statistically significant difference at frequencies of 17% and 11% and 12% respectively; OR (CI95%): 10.04 (3.49-28.87) and p <0.001. On classifying epileptic patients into 2 subgroups, carriers of SCN2A rs17183814 AA genotype tended to respond poorly to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that rs17183814 A allele and positive family history of epilepsy were considered the highest predicted risk factors for the development of epilepsy; p<0.05.

Conclusion: SCN2A rs17183814 (A) allele was specifically associated with developing febrile seizure plus and could modulate the patient’s response to anti-epileptic medications.
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