To systematically review the effects of probiotic supplementation on the prevention and treatment of asthma. A computerized literature search was conducted in CNKI,CBM,VIP,Wanfang,PubMed,Embase,Cochrane Library,and Web of Science from their inception to February,2019 to collect all relevant studies. Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Twelve studies were included in the systematic review of the value of probiotics in asthma prevention. The results showed that probiotic supplementation was not significantly associated with a lower risk of asthma (=0.95,95%=0.82-1.11) or wheeze (=0.99,95%=0.88-1.11). Subgroup analyses based on interventions did not show significant differences. Six studies were included in the systematic review of the role of probiotics in asthma treatment. The results showed that probiotic supplementation improved pulmonary function and asthma control in asthmatic patients. However,more studies are needed to validate this effect. Moreover,further studies are needed to clarify the effect of probiotics on the immune markers and the use of asthmatic drugs in asthmatic patients. Based on the currently available literature,probiotic supplementation can not prevent asthma or wheeze. However,it may improve pulmonary function and asthma control in asthmatic patients,although further studies are needed.