Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease among children. Rotavirus vaccine prevents 15-34% of severe diarrhea in the developing world and 37-96% of severe diarrhea in the developed world. However, some studies have suggested that rotavirus vaccination in children may be associated with a higher risk of type-1 diabetes. This study aims to investigate whether rotavirus vaccination is associated with the incidence of type-1 diabetes in children.

This retrospective cohort study included a total of 386,937 children aged 2-8 months. Children were divided into two groups. In the first group, children received all recommended doses of rotavirus vaccine by 8 months (full exposure group). Children in the second group received some, but not all, vaccines (partially exposed group). The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of type-1 diabetes in children aged 8 months to 11 years.

During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, a total of 464 cases of type-1 diabetes were reported. The incidence rate of diabetes was 20.6 cases per 100,000 person-years. When compared with children unexposed to rotavirus vaccination, the hazard ratio (adjusted [HR]) was 1.03 for children in the fully exposed group and 1.50 for children in the partially exposed group.

The research concluded that there was no significant association between rotavirus vaccination and the risk of type-1 diabetes.