To illustrate the technical feasibility and diagnostic value of including the assessment of the bladder and the ureters during a standard transvaginal ultrasound examination.
We present four cases illustrating ureter and bladder pathology diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound.
In a first case, transvaginal ultrasonography in a woman with lower abdominal pain showed a calculus in the left distal ureter. The small echogenic lesion was easily detectable within the ureter lumen. A second patient, presenting with suprapubic pain, urgency and back pain, was also diagnosed with a ureteral calculus and additionally a hydroureter. The presence of a hydroureter is part of the differential diagnosis of any cystic structure in the pelvis. In a third case, an elderly woman, referred with uterine prolapse, transvaginal ultrasound examination showed a tubular anechoic structure lateral in the pelvis due to a hydroureter, illustrating the differential diagnosis with a hydrosalpinx. A fourth patient, presenting with hematuria, showed an irregular and highly vascularized mass in the bladder and was diagnosed with a transitional cell carcinoma.
The bladder and pelvic part of the ureters are easily identifiable on transvaginal scan. Important pathology of the lower urinary tract and the distal ureters can be readily diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound examination. The evaluation of the bladder and the ureters should therefore be part of the standard gynecological ultrasound investigation.
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