BMC medical genetics 2016 12 2217(1) 98 doi 10.1186/s12881-016-0359-2
Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) or sacral agenesis is a rare congenital disorder characterized by a constellation of congenital caudal anomalies affecting the caudal spine and spinal cord, the hindgut, the urogenital system, and the lower limbs. CRS is a complex condition, attributed to an abnormal development of the caudal mesoderm, likely caused by the effect of interacting genetic and environmental factors. A well-known risk factor is maternal type 1 diabetes.
Whole exome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analyses were conducted on 4 Caucasian trios to identify de novo and inherited rare mutations.
In this pilot study, exome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analyses implicate a number of candidate genes, including SPTBN5, MORN1, ZNF330, CLTCL1 and PDZD2. De novo mutations were found in SPTBN5, MORN1 and ZNF330 and inherited predicted damaging mutations in PDZD2 (homozygous) and CLTCL1 (compound heterozygous). Importantly, predicted damaging mutations in PTEN (heterozygous), in its direct regulator GLTSCR2 (compound heterozygous) and in VANGL1 (heterozygous) were identified. These genes had previously been linked with the CRS phenotype. Two CNV deletions, one de novo (chr3q13.13) and one homozygous (chr8p23.2), were detected in one of our CRS patients. These deletions overlapped with CNVs previously reported in patients with similar phenotype.
Despite the genetic diversity and the complexity of the phenotype, this pilot study identified genetic features common across CRS patients.