BMJ case reports 2017 10 042017() pii 10.1136/bcr-2017-221264
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a serious life-threatening disease if not recognised early. In patients with HIV/AIDS, this association has been reported following acute opportunistic infections, including histoplasmosis. However, optimal treatment is not known. We describe a male aged 46 years with AIDS who developed HLH following acute disseminated histoplasmosis. Presenting symptoms included fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed HLH. Initially, he was refractory to the treatment with amphotericin B, antiretroviral therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Anakinra, an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone were initiated. He improved clinically, did not exhibit any harmful effects and ultimately was discharged from the hospital. This, we believe, is the first reported treatment of HLH with anakinra in a patient with AIDS and acute disseminated histoplasmosis.