To assess the safety and efficacy of long-term administration of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
In this open-label, long-term, phase 3 extension study in Japan, 150 patients transitioned from a double-blind trial, and 41 newly enrolled patients received once daily GXR (starting dose 2 mg/day, maintenance dose 4-6 mg/day) for 50 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the frequency and nature of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); secondary outcome measures included the change from week 0 in ADHD Rating Scale IV with Adult Prompts (ADHD-RS-IV; Japanese version) total and subscale scores, Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) and Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I) scales, and quality of life (QoL) and executive functioning measures.
Of all patients, 94.2% (180/191) reported ≥1 TEAE and 19.9% (38/191) discontinued because of a TEAE. Most TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity; there were two serious TEAEs and no deaths. Commonly reported TEAEs (≥10% of patients) were somnolence, thirst, nasopharyngitis, decreased blood pressure, postural dizziness, bradycardia, malaise, constipation, and dizziness. Mean changes from week 0 in ADHD-RS-IV total and subscale scores and CAARS subscale scores were significantly improved in former placebo or GXR patients and new patients at last observation (p < .0001), and the percentage of patients with very much or much improved CGI-I and PGI-I scores increased.
There were no major safety concerns during long-term GXR administration in adults with ADHD. After long-term treatment, patients had significant improvements from baseline in ADHD symptoms, QoL, and executive functioning.
Japan Primary Registries Network ( https://rctportal.niph.go.jp/en/ ): JapicCTI-163232, registered 04/21/2016.