Salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) is a potentially curative option for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa) but is associated with significant morbidity. Therefore, the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines recommend restricting sRP to a favorable-prognosis group according to the EAU criteria, but these have been validated considering only biochemical recurrence (BCR). Our aim was to test these criteria in a large, multicenter, contemporary cohort. We retrospectively reviewed 1265 patients who underwent sRP at 14 referral centers (2000-2021), stratified by compliance with the EAU criteria. Our primary outcome was metastasis-free survival (MFS). We included 1030 men, of whom 221 (21.5%) fully met the EAU recommended criteria for sRP and 809 (78.5%) did not. The EAU-compliant group experienced more favorable pathological and functional outcomes (79% vs 63% wearing no pads at 1 yr; p < 0.001) and had significantly better MFS (90% vs 76% at 5 yr; p < 0.001), prostate-specific antigen-free survival (55% vs 38% at 5 yr; p < 0.001), and overall survival (89% vs 84% at 5 yr; p = 0.01). This was verified by Cox regression analysis for MFS (hazard ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.99; p = 0.01). We found that adherence to the EAU criteria is associated with a lower risk of BCR and, more importantly, of metastasis after surgery. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at outcomes of surgical removal of the prostate for prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy or other nonsurgical treatments according to whether or not patients met the European Association of Urology (EAU) criteria for this surgery. We found that men who did not meet the criteria had a higher risk of metastasis and their benefit from surgery might be significantly less than for patients who do meet the EUA criteria.
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