To report feasibility and outcome of salvage robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (S-RALP) after focal therapy using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment compared to primary robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (pRALP).
In this bicentric trial patients undergoing S-RALP for detection of WHO2016/ISUP Grade Group 2 or 3 prostate cancer were previously treated in prospective focal HIFU trials. Perioperative data, complications, oncological and functional outcome were analysed. Patients who underwent pRALP were matched in a ratio 2:1 according to preoperatively functional, oncological and clinical parameters.
A total of 39 patients were included in the study (13S-RALP, 26pRALP). Median operative time in the S-RALP group was 260minutes (pRALP: 257minutes), blood loss was 230ml (pRALP: 300ml). Complications occurred in 46.2% (6/13) of S-RALP patients (pRALP: 26.9%), including four Clavien-Dindo III complications (pRALP: 2/26). In S-RALP adverse histological outcome (≥pT3a, pN+ or R1) was detected in 23.1% (3/13) (pRALP: 26.9%). There was one patient with PSA-persistence (pRALP: 2/26). Regarding functional outcomes there was no difference between the two groups observed (incontinence p=0.71, erectile function p=0.21).
S-RALP should be offered to patients with an early relapse after focal HIFU. The early oncological outcome is satisfactory and functional outcome one year postoperatively is similar to pRALP. However, S-RALP is associated with a higher rate of Clavien-Dindo III complications (mainly, placement of a drainage), of which patients should be informed beforehand.

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