The incidence and background factors of sarcopenia and obesity in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia/lymphoma were not clear in Japan.
Between August 2018 and September 2019, we recruited adults aged ≥18 years who had childhood leukemia/lymphoma. Blood sampling, body composition measurement by bioelectrical impedance analysis and grip strength test were performed.
Among 81 adult survivors (34 men and 47 women) with a median age of 25.0 years, 9 (11%) had sarcopenia and 10 (12%) had obesity, of whom, 3 had metabolic syndrome. Sarcopenia was observed in 7 (21%) of 33 survivors with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and 2 (4%) of 48 survivors without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P = 0.012). The incidence of obesity was significantly higher in the cranial radiotherapy (P = 0.021) and non-transplanted cases (P = 0.042). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sarcopenia (odds ratio, 6.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-32.0; P = 0.03) and cranial radiotherapy for obesity (odds ratio, 5.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-22.4; P = 0.015) were significantly associated. Hypertension was more prevalent among the obese survivors, and higher transaminase levels were found more in both the sarcopenia and obese survivors than in others.
Young adult survivors of childhood leukemia/lymphoma could be at risk of developing sarcopenia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and obesity after cranial radiotherapy. Further studies are required to assess the body composition of long-term survivors to find detailed risk factors of sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome.

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