Scientific reports 2017 12 147(1) 17600 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-17928-4
Liver-resident cells are constantly exposed to gut-derived antigens via portal blood and, as a consequence, they express a unique repertoire of scavenger receptors. Whilst there is increasing evidence that the gut contributes to chronic inflammatory liver disease, the role of scavenger receptors in regulating liver inflammation remains limited. Here, we describe for the first time the expression of scavenger receptor class F, member 1 (SCARF-1) on hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC). We report that SCARF-1 shows a highly localised expression pattern and co-localised with endothelial markers on sinusoidal endothelium. Analysis of chronically inflamed liver tissue demonstrated accumulation of SCARF-1 at sites of CD4+ T cell aggregation. We then studied the regulation and functional role of SCARF-1 in HSEC and showed that SCARF-1 expression by HSEC is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, SCARF-1 expression by HSEC, induced by proinflammatory and gut-derived factors acts as a novel adhesion molecule, present in adhesive cup structures, that specifically supports CD4+ T cells under conditions of physiological shear stress. In conclusion, we show that SCARF-1 contributes to lymphocyte subset adhesion to primary human HSEC and could play an important role in regulating the inflammatory response during chronic liver disease.