Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease affecting the periodontium that results from an imbalance between periodontopathogens and host mechanisms. Continuous progression of the disease may lead to tissue and bone destruction, eventually resulting in tooth loss. The extent of bone loss depends on the dysregulated host immune response. Various host-elicited molecules play a major role in disease progression. The discovery of the glycoprotein sclerostin and its role as a regulator of bone mass has led to a better understanding of bone metabolism.
Sclerostin, which is primarily expressed by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. It is a potent antagonist of the canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) pathway, which is actively involved in bone homeostasis. Sclerostin is known to stimulate bone resorption by altering the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa- β ligand (RANKL) balance. Additionally, in periodontitis, activation of the inflammatory cascade also increases the synthesis of sclerostin.
The recently discovered sclerostin antibody has emerged as a positive therapeutic tool for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. It has been reported to improve bone strength, bone formation, osseointegration around implants and lower the risk of bone fractures in various animal and human models. This review describes the properties and action of sclerostin, its role in periodontal diseases, and the advent and efficacy of sclerostin antibodies.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.