Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of anal cancer. Anal cytology can be used to screen for dysplasia, with high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) required for diagnostic confirmation. We describe the impact lack of HRA had on management of abnormal screening results in Bogotá, Colombia.
This retrospective cohort study includes MSM with HIV who underwent anal cytology screening between January 2019February 2020, with colorectal surgery (CRS) follow-up through July 2020. Cytology results included atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Categorical and continuous variables were compared via Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum, respectively.
Of 211 MSM screened, 68 had abnormal cytology: ASC-US (n = 23), LSIL (n = 41), HSIL (n = 4). Sixty (88.2%) were referred to CRS, and 51 (75.0%) attended ≥ 1 appointment. At initial assessment, 17 were referred for anal exam under anesthesia (EUA) for tissue resection, and 21 for rectosigmoidoscopy. Having perianal condyloma was associated with recommendation for EUA (P < 0.001), while cytology grade of dysplasia was not (P = 0.308). Eleven (16.2%) underwent EUA for condyloma resection.
Few studies have described anal cancer screening in settings without HRA. We found lack of HRA limited management of abnormal cytology in Colombia. Those with condyloma underwent resection, but HRA remains necessary to localize and treat microscopic disease. Next steps include implementation of HRA in order to further develop the anal cancer screening program for MSM with HIV in Bogotá.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.