Orthodontic and orthognathic management of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is a highly controversial subject. We present herein a retrospective study of 214 secondary cases followed over 22 years in order to assess the factors of successful management.
The study focuses on the results of gingivoperiosteoplasty, and occlusal stability. Nine subgroups were identified, taking into account the age of the patients, the history of surgery on the alveolar region, and the presence or absence of skeletal discrepancy.
Results clearly demonstrate a higher rate of poor outcomes and failures in the multioperated population. The success rate of the graft is 80.82% in the multioperated population versus 100% non-multioperated population. Periodontitis problem or orthodontic difficulties affect 19.17% of the patient in the multioperated groups versus 12% in the other groups. Relapse, particularly the transversal dimension, is also found mostly in the multi-operated population: 17.8% versus 6% in the non-multioperated population.
Several factors are involved in the success of orthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics, and orthognathic surgery of CLP patients. Our study shows that previous surgeries, especially when they are multiple with repeated failures, jeopardize the chances of success of secondary treatments. This is explained by the secondary fibrosis of the tissues around the cleft. Finally, major palatal surgeries performed early, have adverse effects on maxillary growth. Many other factors play an important role in the stability of the success that are linked with orofacial functions. These data must be taken into account in the treatment of CLP patients.