We evaluated cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at our institution.
Allo-HSCT was performed in 1534 patients (1776 cases) at our institution from 2001 to 2016. Overall, 602 patients were confirmed to have survived for 2 or more years and 154 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at least 1-year post-transplantation. ESCC was discovered in 17 patients (1.1%), 15 of whom had 31 lesions discovered at our institution (ESCC group). A retrospective comparative study was conducted with the remaining 137 patients for whom no ESCC was noted (non-ESCC group), and we also evaluated the clinicopathological characteristics of the ESCC group.
History of TBI (total body irradiation) and bone marrow transplant was significantly higher in the ESCC group. The mean time from transplantation to detection of ESCC was 82.3 months. Localization was upper thoracic in 12 cases, middle thoracic in 10, cervical in 4, lower thoracic in 3, and upper to lower thoracic in 2. Treatment comprised endoscopic submucosal dissection in 23 cases, surgery in 4, untreated due to worsening primary disease in 3, and chemoradiotherapy in 1.
In this study, lesions were located in the cervical to upper thoracic esophagus in approximately 60% of all secondary ESCC cases after allo-HSCT. History of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are high risk of ESCC, and proactive screening endoscopy is desirable.