Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a virus that belongs to the species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV), which is related to the SARS-CoV-1 virus that caused the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been associated with electrolyte abnormalities. In this report, we discuss the case of a SARS-CoV-2-infected person presenting with recurrent seizure episodes resulting from hypophosphatemia. A 52-year-old male patient with questionable prior seizure history presented to the emergency department (ED) twice within eight days with recurring seizure episodes. While the physical examination at the first presentation was significant for a head laceration with post-ictal confusion, that at the second presentation was only significant for post-ictal confusion. Laboratory examination at the first visit revealed SARS-CoV-2 positivity, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and low vitamin D levels. On the second visit, the patient was again found to have hypophosphatemia. CT of the head and the cervical spine, as well as radiographs of the chest done on the first visit, were all normal. On his first visit, the patient’s electrolyte abnormalities were corrected, and he was discharged with antiepileptic medications after 24 hours of observation and consultation with neurology. However, his vitamin D levels, the results of which came back only after his first discharge, were corrected only during his second visit. This time, he was discharged from the ED and had an effective resolution of symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infections can result in vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatemia, resulting in seizures, and hence should be treated with both replacement therapies and antiepileptic medications. This case also highlights the importance of obtaining phosphorus and vitamin D levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with seizures.
Copyright © 2023, Yeh et al.