Severe aplastic anemia and congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia are rare bone marrow failure syndromes. Treatment for aplastic anemia consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched sibling donor or immunosuppressant drugs if there is no donor available. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is a rare autosomal recessive disease that causes bone marrow failure and has limited treatment options, except for transfusion support and HSCT. In the absence of a suitable matched sibling donor, matched-unrelated, haploidentical, or mismatched donors may be considered. A 2-step partial T-cell-depletion strategy can remove CD45RA+ naïve T cells responsible for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) while preserving memory T cells. Five patients underwent transplantation using this strategy with rapid neutrophil and platelet recovery. Acute and chronic GvHD ≥ grade 2 appeared in two and one patient, respectively. No severe infections were observed before day + 100. A high (60%) incidence of transplant-associated microangiopathy was observed. Three patients (60%) remain alive, with a median follow-up of 881 (range 323-1248) days. CD45RA-depleted HSCT is a novel approach for patients lacking a suitable matched donor; however, further improvements are needed.

References

PubMed