Diabetes is one of the global health emergencies of the 21st century. This study sought to assess self-care behaviours, glycaemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of type 2 diabetes patients at a Nigerian hospital, determine factors associated with HRQoL, and assess the inter-relationship among these outcomes.
The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure was used to assess self-care behaviours; HRQoL was assessed with the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) and SF-12v2 Health Survey. Glycaemic control was assessed with fasting blood sugar (FBS). The questionnaires were distributed to 250 eligible patients attending Endocrinology clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Mean scores (±SD) of self-care behaviours were 4.0 ± 1.3, 3.9 ± 1.0, 2.4 ± 1.2, 1.0 ± 1.1, and 2.5 ± 2.1 for general diet, specific diet, exercise, blood glucose monitoring, and foot care respectively. Mean FBS was 7.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L. Mean ADS score was 18.1 ± 4.2. The physical and mental component summary scores were 47.84 ± 8.21 and 45.66 ± 8.74 respectively. HRQoL was significantly associated with patient socio-demographic (except gender) and clinical variables (p < 0.05). Self-care activities, FBS and HRQoL were significantly inter-correlated (r -0.31 to 0.68; p < 0.01, p < 0.001).
Patients were more adherent to diet recommendations than to other aspects of self-care. Though most patients had adequate glucose control, the presence of diabetes had a negative impact on the mental component of health. HRQoL was affected by most of the patient-related variables. Interventions to improve adherence to self-care are recommended to achieve good glycaemic control and improve HRQoL.

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