Rapid diagnosis is critical for the treatment and prevention of diseases. An advanced nanomaterial-based biosensing platform that detects COVID-19 antibodies within seconds is reported. The biosensing platform is created by 3D nanoprinting of three-dimensional electrodes, coating the electrodes by nanoflakes of reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), and immobilizing specific viral antigens on the rGO nanoflakes. The electrode is then integrated with a microfluidic device and used in a standard electrochemical cell. When antibodies are introduced on the electrode surface, they selectively bind with the antigens, changing the impedance of the electrical circuit which is detected via impedance spectroscopy. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein and its receptor-binding-domain (RBD) are detected at a limit-of-detection of 2.8 × 10 and 16.9 × 10 m, respectively, and read by a smartphone-based user interface. The sensor can be regenerated within a minute by introducing a low-pH chemistry that elutes the antibodies from the antigens, allowing successive sensing of test samples using the same sensor. Sensing of S1 and RBD antibodies is specific, which cross-reacts neither with other antibodies such as RBD, S1, and nucleocapsid antibody nor with proteins such as interleukin-6. The proposed sensing platform could also be useful to detect biomarkers for other infectious agents such as Ebola, HIV, and Zika.
© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH.