Target lumen enlargement (TLE) or “late lumen enlargement” is often encountered after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-coated balloons (DCB). To date, the prognosis of coronary arterial lesions with or without TLE has not been clearly elucidated.
This study aimed to assess the long-term prognosis of coronary arterial lesions with or without TLE observed within 1 year (early TLE) after DCB angioplasty using serial quantitative angiographic follow-up.
One hundred and ninety-three consecutive patients (de novo coronary arterial lesions, 251) who underwent follow-up angiography within 1 year after DCB angioplasty (early follow-up, median: 6 months) were retrospectively evaluated. Of these, 97 patients (125 lesions) also underwent angiography more than 1 year after DCB angioplasty (late follow-up, median: 37 months). TLE was defined as an increase in minimal lumen diameter (MLD) after PCI at each follow-up.
Early TLE was detected in 142 lesions (56.6%). Of these, 76 lesions were also evaluated at late follow-up. TLE persisted even at late follow-up in 67 of the 76 lesions (88.2%). An increase in MLD in early TLE (+) lesions was observed in the period between post-PCI and early follow-up (1.84 ± 0.06 vs. 2.12 ± 0.07 mm, p < 0.001) but not between early and late follow-up (2.12 ± 0.07 vs. 2.16 ± 0.07 mm, p = 0.74). In contrast, 49 of 109 lesions without early TLE were evaluated at late follow-up, of which 28 lesions (57.1%) showed TLE at late follow-up. The MLD of early TLE (-) lesions (n = 49) significantly increased from early (1.63 ± 0.061 mm) to late follow-up (1.84 ± 0.06 mm) (p < 0.001). No aneurysms were found in any of these cases.
Early TLE was observed in more than half of the lesions, with the majority remaining at late follow-up. Alternatively, half of the lesions without early TLE showed late TLE, occurring biphasically after DCB angioplasty.

© 2023 The Authors. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.