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Seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young adults in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia: a population-based cross-sectional study.

Seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young adults in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia: a population-based cross-sectional study.
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Balaeva T, Grjibovski AM, Sidorenkov O, Samodova O, Firsova N, Sannikov A, Klouman E,


Balaeva T, Grjibovski AM, Sidorenkov O, Samodova O, Firsova N, Sannikov A, Klouman E, (click to view)

Balaeva T, Grjibovski AM, Sidorenkov O, Samodova O, Firsova N, Sannikov A, Klouman E,

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BMC infectious diseases 2016 Oct 2816(1) 616

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the brink of a generalized HIV-epidemic, but Arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV-infection. The evidence on the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in Russia is limited. The aim of this study was to assess HSV-2 seroprevalence and correlates among young adults in the city of Arkhangelsk.

METHODS
1243 adults aged 18-39 years participated in a cross-sectional population-based study, recruited by a public opinion agency applying a quota sampling method to achieve a data set with similar age- and sex-distribution as the population in Arkhangelsk. All participants completed a standardized, self-administrated questionnaire and were tested for HSV-2. Associations between HSV-2 seropositivity and selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors, and self-reported history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were studied by multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS
HSV-2 seroprevalence was 18.8 %: 12.2 % (95 % confidence interval, CI 9.7-15.2) among men and 24.0 % (95 % CI 20.1-27.3) among women. Among men, HSV-2 positivity was associated with being divorced/widowed (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.06-7.70), cohabitation (OR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.07-5.62), and a history of STIs (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI 1.14-3.91). In women, HSV-2 positivity was associated with high income (OR = 3.11, 95 % CI 1.45-6.71) and having a lifetime number of sexual partners between 2 and 5 (OR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.14-6.51), whereas sexual debut at age 18 years or older was inversely associated with the outcome (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.31-0.72). In both sexes, increasing age was the strongest correlate of HSV-2 seropositivity in multivariable analyses.

CONCLUSION
The HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in women than in men and increased with age in both sexes, and similar to that reported from high-prevalence countries in Europe and the USA. The high prevalence of HSV-2 among women in childbearing age reveals the potential for HSV-2 transmission from mothers to infants and increased risk of acquisition HIV-infection; it also contributes to the burden GUD among both sexes. This emphasizes the public health implications of the HSV-2 epidemic in an urban population in North-West Russia.

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