To estimate the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), herpes simplex type-2 (HSV2), hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and nine human papilloma virus (HPV) types, and investigated factors associated with the seropositivity among men from three countries (Brazil, Mexico and U.S).
Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment for n = 600 men were tested for antibodies against CT, HSV2, HCV, EBV, and 9-valent HPV vaccine types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) using multiplex serologic assays. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire.
Overall, 39.3% of the men were seropositive for CT, 25.4% for HSV2, 1.3% for HCV, 97.3% for EBV, 14.0% for at least one of the seven oncogenic HPV (types: 16/18/31/33/45/52/58), and 17.4% for HPV 6/11. In the unadjusted models, age, race, smoking, sexual behavior variables, and seropositivity for high-risk HPV were significantly associated with the seropositivity for CT. In multivariable analyses, self-reported black race, higher numbers of lifetime female/male sexual partners, current smoking, and seropositivity to high-risk HPV were significantly associated with increased odds of CT seropositivity. Odds of HSV2 seroprevalence were elevated among older men and those seropositive for high risk HPV.
Exposure to STIs is common among men. Prevention and screening programs should target high-risk groups to reduce the disease burden among men, and to interrupt the disease transmission to sexual partners.