(Winteraceae) has been investigated in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties to treat gastric ulcers and allergic and respiratory system diseases as well as for cancer treatment. In this work, we investigate the ability of the sesquiterpene polygodial, isolated from stem barks, to modulate the chronic inflammatory response induced by polyester-polyurethane sponge implants in C57BL/6J mice. Daily treatment with polygodial inhibited the macrophage content in the implants as determined by the activity of the -acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase enzyme as well as decreased the levels of CXCL1/KC and CCL2/JE/MCP-1 pro-inflammatory chemokines and the presence of mast cells along the formed fibrovascular tissue. Similarly, the deposition of a new extracellular matrix (total collagen and type I and III collagen fibers) as well as the production of the TGF-β1 cytokine were attenuated in implants treated with polygodial, showing for the first time its antifibrogenic capacity. The hemoglobin content, the number of newly formed vessels, and the levels of VEGF cytokine, which were used as parameters for the assessment of the neovascularization of the implants, did not change after treatment with polygodial. The anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic effects of polygodial over the components of the granulation tissue induced by the sponge implant indicate a therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases associated with the development of fibrovascular tissue.