Sestrins are a family of proteins that respond to a variety of environmental stresses, including genotoxic, oxidative, and nutritional stresses. Sestrins affect multiple signaling pathways: AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complexes, insulin-AKT, and redox signaling pathways. By regulating these pathways, Sestrins are thought to help adapt to stressful environments and subsequently restore cell and tissue homeostasis. In this review, we describe how Sestrins mediate physiological stress responses in the context of nutritional and chemical stresses (liver), physical movement and exercise (skeletal muscle), and chemical, physical, and inflammatory injuries (heart). These findings also support the idea that Sestrins are a molecular mediator of hormesis, a paradoxical beneficial effect of low- or moderate-level stresses in living organisms. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 83 is February 10, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.