The emergence and rapid spread of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a potentially fatal disease is swiftly evolving public health crises worldwide. The origin of SARS-CoV-2 infection was first reported in people exposed to wet animal market in Wuhan City, China in December 2019. It was suggested that the infection is likely to be of zoonotic origin and transmitted to human through yet unknown intermediary. As of (22/05/2020), there are around 4,995,996 confirmed cases reported by WHO with 327,821 deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection is transmitted via inhalation or direct contact of infected people’s droplets. It has an incubation period ranging from 2 to 14 days or more. The rate of spread of SARS-CoV-2 is more than partially resembled coronavirus (SARS-CoV and MERS). The symptoms are similar to influenza like, breathlessness, sore throat and fatigue therefore, infected person is isolated and administrated with effective treatments. Infection is mild in most but in elderly (>50 years) and those with cardiac and respiratory disorder, it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multi organ failure. People with strong immunity or those developed herd immunity are asymptomatic. Fatality rate ranges to 3-4% on case basis. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests like PCR, chest scan and common laboratory diagnosis. Currently, the existing treatment is essentially supportive and role of antiviral agents is yet to be established as there is no vaccination or therapy available. This review focuses on epidemiology, symptoms, transmission, pathogenesis, ongoing available treatments and future perspectives of SARS-CoV-2.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.