Early-onset preeclampsia (PE) is a severe condition with highest risk of perinatal complications. In current study, we compared PE severity, laboratory results and placental pathological lesions between early-onset PE with fetal growth restriction (PE + FGR) and appropriate gestational age (PE + AGA) neonates, with the aim to identify potential maternal risk factors associated with FGR. A retrospective case study was conducted in 304 PE women, and 31 cases with mild PE were excluded. 276 patients with severe PE were divided into PE + FGR (163, 59.1%) and PE + AGA (113, 40.9%) groups and underwent clinical analysis. 244 cases were further submitted for pathologic examinations to compare the differences of placental lesions between these two groups. As compared to PE + AGA, the maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (P = 0.003) and the rate of anemia (P = 0.004) were lower in PE + FGR; while the rate of severe low serum albumin (P = 0.020) was higher. Moreover, severe low serum albumin level (aOR = 2.43, P = 0.046) and abnormal uric acid (aOR = 2.19, P = 0.033) were positively correlated to the incidence of FGR, while pre-pregnancy BMI (aOR = 0.39, P = 0.001) and anemia (aOR = 0.33, P = 0.001) showed negative correlation. The placental examinations further showed positively correlation between chronic villitis (aOR = 4.32, P = 0.028) and FGR. Surprisingly, general measures of maternal illness severity failed to present any significant correlation to FGR, except for blood pressure, which showed negative correlation. For the first time, we studied a relatively large case series of Chinses early-onset PE women, and identified multiple factors associated with FGR incidence. Our study provided some opinions on clinal diagnosis and treatment for early-onset PE with FGR.
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