Psychiatric disorders have been associated with unfavorable outcome following respiratory infections. Whether this also applies to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been scarcely investigated.
Using the Danish administrative databases, we identified all patients with a positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for COVID-19 in Denmark up to and including January 2, 2021. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate 30-day absolute risk and average risk ratio (ARR) for the composite endpoint of death from any cause and severe COVID-19 associated with psychiatric disorders, defined using both hospital diagnoses and redemption of psychotropic drugs.
We included 144,321patients with COVID-19. Compared with patients without psychiatric disorders, the standardized ARR of the composite outcome was significantly increased for patients with severe mental illness including schizophrenia spectrum disorders 2.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-3.07), bipolar disorder 2.11 (95% CI, 1.25-2.97), unipolar depression 1.70 (95% CI, 1.38-2.02), and for patients who redeemed psychotropic drugs 1.70 (95% CI, 1.48-1.92). No association was found for patients with other psychiatric disorders 1.13 (95% CI, 0.86-1.38). Similar results were seen with the outcomes of death or severe COVID-19. Among the different psychiatric subgroups, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders had the highest 30-day absolute risk for the composite outcome 3.1% (95% CI, 2.3-3.9%), death 1.2% (95% CI, 0.4-2.0%) and severe COVID-19 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9-3.6%).
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression and psychotropic drug redemption are associated with unfavourable outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

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