The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnant women is significantly higher than that in non-pregnant women. VTE is more common after delivery than before delivery, and this condition can be hidden and develops rapidly. VTE mainly includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Thrombophilia is an important risk factor for VTE in pregnant women and includes acquired thrombophilia and hereditary thrombophilia.
A 24-year-old nulliparous female patient underwent cesarean section of the lower uterus due to fetal distress. Anti-inflammatory rehydration was given after the operation to prevent thrombosis. The patient had no obvious discomfort after surgery. Ten days after the operation, the patient developed a fever. The patient’s mother revealed that she had a previous history of a lower extremity venous thrombosis. Color Doppler ultrasound showed deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity. The results of computed tomography angiography showed that the patient had a double pulmonary artery embolism. Bilateral lower extremity antegrade venography, inferior vena cava angiography and filter placement were performed. The patient continued to receive anticoagulant therapy. After 2 wk, the patient’s condition improved. An anticoagulant protein test was performed 2 mo after discharge, and the results showed that both the patient and her mother had reduced protein S.
Clinicians should learn to recognize the high-risk factors for VTE, improve their understanding of VTE, and actively prevent and diagnose VTE as early as possible.

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