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Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease.

Sex and ethnic/racial-specific risk factors for gallbladder disease.
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Figueiredo JC, Haiman C, Porcel J, Buxbaum J, Stram D, Tambe N, Cozen W, Wilkens L, Le Marchand L, Setiawan VW,


Figueiredo JC, Haiman C, Porcel J, Buxbaum J, Stram D, Tambe N, Cozen W, Wilkens L, Le Marchand L, Setiawan VW, (click to view)

Figueiredo JC, Haiman C, Porcel J, Buxbaum J, Stram D, Tambe N, Cozen W, Wilkens L, Le Marchand L, Setiawan VW,

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BMC gastroenterology 2017 12 0817(1) 153 doi 10.1186/s12876-017-0678-6
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a highly prevalent condition; however, little is known about potential differences in risk factors by sex and ethnicity/race. Our aim was to evaluate dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors and GBD in multiethnic populations.

METHODS
We performed a prospective analysis from the Multiethnic Cohort study who self-identified as non-Hispanic White (n = 32,103), African American (n = 30,209), Japanese (n = 35,987), Native Hawaiian (n = 6942) and Latino (n = 39,168). GBD cases were identified using Medicare and California hospital discharge files (1993-2012) and self-completed questionnaires. We used exposure information on the baseline questionnaire to identify exposures of interest. Associations were estimated by hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox models adjusted for confounders.

RESULT
After a median 10.7 years of follow-up, there were 13,437 GBD cases. BMI over 25 kg/m2, diabetes, past and current smoking, red meat consumption, saturated fat and cholesterol were significant risk factors across ethnic/racial populations (p-trends < 0.01). Protective factors included vigorous physical activity, alcohol use, fruits, vegetables and foods rich in dietary fiber (p-trends < 0.01). Carbohydrates were inversely associated with GBD risk only among women and Latinos born in South America/Mexico (p-trend < 0.003). Parity was a significant risk factor among women; post-menopausal hormones use was only associated with an increased risk among White women (estrogen-only: HR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07-1.43 and estrogen + progesterone: HR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.06-1.42). CONCLUSION
Overall, dietary, reproductive and obesity-related factors are strong risk factors for GBD affecting men and women of different ethnicities/races; however some risk factors appear stronger in women and certain ethnic groups.

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