Coronary artery revascularization (CAR) is performed when the coronary arteries become severely blocked. Recent studies have suggested that the effect of CAR treatments, like coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), may be different on males and females. The objective of this study is to examine the difference in mortality between males and females at 10 years after the CAR treatment.

This is an extended survival study that included a total of 1,800 patients with de novo 3-vessel or left main coronary artery disease. Out of 1,800 patients, 402 (22.3%) were females and 1,398 (77.7%) were males. The eligible participants were randomized to treatment with PCI or CABG. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause mortality at 10 years of follow-up.

At 10 years of follow-up, females had a higher mortality rate (32.8%) compared with males (24.7%). However, the findings suggested that the female sex was not the sole factor of mortality. The risk of mortality was lower in patients who underwent CABG than those who underwent PCI.

The research concluded that the rate of mortality among patients who had undergone CABG was higher in females than in males. However, female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality.