Clinical factors associated with daytime sleepiness and insomnia in persons with epilepsy (PWE) were examined in this cross-sectional study of 126 participants (men, 50.8%). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS; score of ≥11 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)) was noted in 17.5% of participants (mean score, 6.1 ± 4.2), and moderate-to-severe insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scores of ≥15) was noted in 20.6% (mean score, 7.8 ± 6.4). Linear regression analyses revealed that ESS scores were independently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; snoring, tiredness, observed apnea, high blood pressure, body mass index, age, neck circumference, and gender (STOP-Bang) score of ≥3), an antiepileptic drug (AED) load of >3, depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score of ≥10), female sex, and nocturnal seizures. Insomnia Severity Indices were independently associated with depression and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) score of ≥7). Notably, significant sex differences were found. Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores were associated with OSA in men but were associated with depression in women. In addition, anxiety was associated with insomnia in women only. Overall, OSA and depression were the most important significant clinical factors associated with daytime sleepiness and insomnia, respectively. However, there were sex differences for the associations between individual factors and sleep disturbances.
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