Wide individual variation observed in tooth agenesis patterns in patients with non-syndromic oligodontia could be affected by sexual dimorphism. Therefore, the present study investigated sex-associated differences in tooth agenesis patterns in patients with non-syndromic oligodontia.
Subjects were 108 male (ages 7-46 years) and 184 female (ages 7-43 years) orthodontic patients missing ≥6 permanent teeth, excluding third molars. The number of agenetic teeth per patient, excluding third molars, and the prevalence of agenesis of each tooth type were evaluated using panoramic radiographic images. Rankings of the most common tooth agenesis patterns in the maxillary and mandibular arches were calculated. The number of agenetic teeth per patient was compared between sexes using the Mann-Whitney test. The prevalence of tooth agenesis for each tooth type was compared between sexes using the χ and Fisher’s exact tests with Bonferroni correction.
No significant sex difference in the distribution of the number of agenetic teeth was observed. The prevalence of agenesis of the maxillary second premolars was significantly higher in females (P < 0.007) and the prevalence of agenesis of the mandibular central incisors was significantly higher in males (P < 0.007). Sexual dimorphism was observed in the highly ranked tooth agenesis patterns.
No significant difference in the severity of tooth agenesis was observed between sexes; however, sexual dimorphism was observed in the tooth agenesis patterns of patients with non-syndromic oligodontia. Although various tooth agenesis patterns were identified, sex-specific tendencies suggest that categories can be utilized in future epidemiologic research and planning.