Sexually transmitted diseases 2018 04 10() doi 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000852
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV are highest in the southern U.S., but vary widely by gender, age and risk behavior. Current guidelines recommend annual screening for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis in all sexually active women with HIV.
Screening rates and test positivity for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis were determined per calendar year in this retrospective cohort study of women in care at an urban HIV clinic in Birmingham, Alabama, 2013-2015. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas infection were detected by molecular diagnostics and syphilis by serology. A combined endpoint for CT/GC/syphilis (STI-3) was created based on similar test positivity and predictors. Predictors of STI-3 were identified using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations.
Among 745 women with HIV, median age was 46.8 years, 78.8% were Black and 61% were sexually active. In 2015, 83.7% of women were tested for STI. Test positivity was 1.0% for chlamydia, 0.5% for gonorrhea, 1.6% for syphilis, and 13.3% for trichomoniasis. Independent predictors of STI-3 were recent chlamydia or gonorrhea (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1-13.4, p=0.047), public insurance compared to private (OR 3.5, CI 1-11.8, p=0.048) and sex after drugs/alcohol (OR 3.0, CI 1.2-8.0, p=0.025). Women age ≥50 were less likely to have STI (OR 0.3, CI 0.1-1, p=0.040).
In a cohort of women engaged in HIV care in the southern United States, detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis was infrequent but trichomoniasis was common. Many women screened for STI were low-risk and universal testing strategies warrant evaluation.