Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary brain tumor and is associated with a poor clinical prognosis. Despite the progress in the understanding of the molecular and genetic changes that promote tumorigenesis, effective treatment options are limited. The present review intended to identify and summarize major signaling pathways and genetic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of GBM, as well as therapies that target these pathways. Glioblastoma remains a difficult to treat tumor; however, in the last two decades, significant improvements in the understanding of GBM biology have enabled advances in available therapeutics. Significant genomic events and signaling pathway disruptions (NF‑κB, Wnt, PI3K/AKT/mTOR) involved in the formation of GBM were discussed. Current therapeutic options may only marginally prolong survival and the current standard of therapy cures only a small fraction of patients. As a result, there is an unmet requirement for further study into the processes of glioblastoma pathogenesis and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets in novel signaling pathways implicated in the evolution of glioblastoma.