This study discusses the impacts and processes of silica particles and asbestos fibers, two environmental, occupational, and medicinal chemicals that induce dysregulation of autoimmunity. In terms of silica, several epidemiological studies have found a link between silica exposure and the development of autoimmune disorders. Although the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome has been identified as the initial immune response to silica particles, the mechanisms implicated in different autoimmune disorders in individuals exposed to silica remain mostly unclear. Silica may stimulate a variety of immune cells, and studying the related imbalance of regulatory T cells, responder T cells, and Th17 cells could help us better understand silica-induced autoimmune changes. Asbestos exposure, on the other hand, is associated with less autoimmune disorders. However, there have been some intriguing discoveries about the identification of anti endothelial and mesothelial cell antibodies in asbestos-exposed individuals.

Taken together, additional research may help to define the processes involved in environmental factor-induced autoimmune change.