The optical fiber temperature and refractive index sensor combined with the hollow needle structure for medical treatment can promote the standardization of traditional acupuncture techniques and improve the accuracy of body fluid analysis. A double-parameter sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is developed in this paper. The sensor materials are selected through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and the sensor sensing principle is theoretically analyzed and simulated. Through femtosecond laser writing pure silica fiber, a high temperature resistant wavelength type FBG temperature sensor is obtained, and the FBG is corroded by hydrofluoric acid (HF) to realize a high-sensitivity intensity-type refractive index sensor. Because the light has dual characteristics of energy and wavelength, the sensor can realize simultaneous dual-parameter sensing. The light from the lead-in optical fiber is transmitted to the sensor and affected by temperature and refractive-index; then, the reflection peak is reflected back to the lead-out fiber by the FBG. The high temperature response and the refractive index response of the sensor were measured in the laboratory, and the high temperature characteristics of the sensor were verified in the accredited institute. It is demonstrated that the proposed sensor can achieve temperature sensing up to 1150 °C with the sensitivity of 0.0134 nm/°C, and refractive sensing over a refractive range of 1.333 to 1.4027 with the sensitivity of -49.044 dBm/RIU. The sensor features the advantages of two-parameter measurement, compact structure, and wide temperature range, and it exhibits great potential in acupuncture treatment.