We report on the simultaneous monitoring of sweat lactate concentration and sweat secretion rate. For this aim lactate oxidase-Prussian Blue enzyme-nanozyme type lactate biosensors were elaborated. The use of siloxane-perfluorosulfonated ionomer composite membrane for enzyme-nanozyme immobilization results in the biosensor displaying flux independence in the whole range of physiological sweat secretion rates (0.025-2 μl cm min). On the contrary, current response of the biosensor based on solely siloxane membranes becomes saturated at physiological sweat lactate concentration, depending mostly on the flow rate. Accordingly, for simultaneous monitoring of sweat lactate concentration and its secretion rate both flow-through biosensors were integrated with high-accuracy wearable electronic devices allowing real-time remote monitoring. As found, during exhaustive physical exercise sweat secretion rate and lactate content are independent of each other, thus, confirming that this excretory liquid is suitable for non-invasive diagnostics.
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