B1 cells are self-renewing innate-like B lymphocytes that provide the first line of defense against pathogens. B1 cells primarily reside in the peritoneal cavity and are known to originate from various fetal tissues, yet their developmental pathways and the mechanisms underlying maintenance of B1 cells throughout adulthood remain unclear.
We performed high-throughput single-cell analysis of the transcriptomes and B-cell receptor repertoires of peritoneal B cells of neonates, young adults, and elderly mice. Gene expression analysis of 31,718 peritoneal B cells showed that the neonate peritoneal cavity contained many B1 progenitors, and neonate B cell specific clustering revealed two trajectories of peritoneal B1 cell development, including pre-BCR dependent and pre-BCR independent pathways. We also detected profound age-related changes in B1 cell transcriptomes: clear difference in senescence genetic program was evident in differentially aged B1 cells, and we found an example that a B1 subset only present in the oldest mice was marked by expression of the fatty-acid receptor CD36. We also performed antibody gene sequencing of 15,967 peritoneal B cells from the three age groups and discovered that B1 cell aging was associated with clonal expansion and two B1 cell clones expanded in the aged mice had the same CDR-H3 sequence (AGDYDGYWYFDV) as a pathogenically linked cell type from a recent study of an atherosclerosis mouse model.
Beyond offering an unprecedent data resource to explore the cell-to-cell variation in B cells, our study has revealed that B1 precursor subsets are present in the neonate peritoneal cavity and dissected the developmental pathway of the precursor cells. Besides, this study has found the expression of CD36 on the B1 cells in the aged mice. And the single-cell B-cell receptor sequencing reveals B1 cell aging is associated with clonal expansion.

© 2022. The Author(s).