The purpose of this meta-analysis is to further explore the effectiveness of multidose metronidazole (MTZ) and single-dose MTZ in the treatment of trichomoniasis.
Search all the literature on MTZ for trichomoniasis in the Pubmed, Ovid Embase, Ovid MEDLIN and Cochrane Library databases. The search period is from the establishment of the database to September 10, 2020. Two authors independently screened the literatures based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and independent extraction and integration of literature data. The main observation indicators were treatment failure rate and side-effects. Data analysis was performed using RevMan5.2 software. The risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect scale indicators of the counting data. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
A total of 2114 articles were retrieved. After screening, a total of 7 articles were included, including 5 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 2 case-control studies. 745 cases were treated with single-dose MTZ, and 732 cases were treated with multidose MTZ. The single-dose MTZ had a higher failure rate for trichomoniasis than the multidose MTZ, and the difference was statistically significant (RR = 1.07, 95 %CI, 1.03-1.11, P = 0.0003). When a HIV-positive study was excluded, the failure rate of the single-dose MTZ was still significantly higher than that of the multidose MTZ (RR = 1.62, 95 %CI, 1.19-2.22, P = 0.002). The side-effects of the single-dose MTZ were higher than those of the multidose MTZ, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR = 1.06, 95 %CI, 0.88-1.27, P = 0.53).
Although based on available data, multidose MTZ is more effective than single-dose MTZ for trichomoniasis, this advantage is not as obvious as previously proven. This small advantage may be lower if considering the compliance of multidose MTZ in the real world. Therefore, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm this before suggesting a multidose MTZ as the first line treatment for HIV-negative trichomoniasis.

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