We aimed to review the literature that reported bacterial flora in the sinuses and nasal cavities of patients with CF or PCD.

As a data collection method, several medical literature databases were systematically searched. We applied the following inclusion criteria: a minimum of one case of PCD or CF and microbiology analyses from the nose or paranasal sinuses.

We included 46 studies from 16 countries. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 30% of the noses and sinuses of patients with CF. Other common bacteria found had Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Haemophilus influenza. In PCD, H. influenzae was the most common bacteria, followed by Streptococcus pneumonia and P. aeruginosa. 

The study concluded that S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and H. influenzae dominated patients’ upper airways with CF. In patients with PCD, H. influenzae, S. pneumonia, and P. aeruginosa dominated. When studies that included swab and blowing samples were excluded, P. aeruginosa was the most common bacterium in both groups. Direct comparisons among the analyses were restricted due to very heterogeneous methods, and better standardization of procedures and outcomes is needed.

Reference: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4461