Skin microorganisms are inextricably linked to cutaneous health and illness. The interactions of commensal microbiota with the various cell types involved in cutaneous wound healing control the immune response and promote barrier repair. Chronic wounds disrupt the communication between host cells and the microbiota. In this review, researchers will first describe how advances in sequencing approaches and analysis have been used to study the chronic wound microbiota, and how these findings have highlighted the complexity of microbial communities and their relationship with clinical outcomes in patients with chronic wound disorders. In addition, they highlight the molecular insights gained from numerous animal models of polymicrobial wound infections. They explore the function of the intracellular bacterial niche in wound healing, in addition to the well-described involvement of bacteria living in polymicrobial biofilms.
In contrast to pathogenic species capable of undermining skin immunity, commensals are crucial for regulating the cutaneous immune system and providing protection against intracellular pathogens via modulation of the antimicrobial molecule Perforin-2. Researchers still need additional study to shed insight on host-microbiome interaction in healing and nonhealing chronic wounds to properly guide treatment advancements.