Sleep, physical activity and sedentary time are all known to play a role in cardiometabolic health. Compositional data analysis (CoDA) enables us to examine associations between 24-h use of time and health outcomes.
Data were collected in the Child Health CheckPoint study, a one-off national population-cohort study conducted between February 2015 and March 2016. Wrist-worn actigraphy monitors (GENEActiv Original, Cambs, UK) were used to measure activity behaviours (sleep, physical activity and sedentary time) and sleep characteristics (sleep variability, midsleep, efficiency). CoDA was applied to determine the association between 24-h use of time and cardiometabolic risk markers (blood pressure; body mass index; apolipoprotein B/A1; glycoprotein acetyls; and composite metabolic syndrome score). Substitution modelling (one-for-remaining and one-for-one) examined the associations of reallocating sleep time with other activity behaviours.
Data were available for 1073 Australian children aged 11-12 years (50% male) and 1337 adults (13% male). Strong association was found between 24-h use of time and all cardiometabolic health outcomes. Longer sleep was associated with more favourable cardiovascular health. Sleep characteristics other than duration (efficiency, timing, variability) were weakly and inconsistently associated with outcomes. Reallocating time from sleep to moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) had favourable associations with cardiometabolic health, but reallocating from sleep to sedentary time was associated with less favourable cardiometabolic health.
The 24-h activity composition is strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in children and adults. Days with more sleep and MVPA are associated with improved cardiometabolic health.

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