Sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney disease have been assessed in a limited number of studies. Our aim was to characterize the types of sleep disorders in children on regular hemodialysis and to detect the predictors of sleep efficiency in those children. Forty children and adolescents on regular hemodialysis and another 40 age- and gender-matched control groups were interviewed to answer a questionnaire-based survey, a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale, to assess excess daytime sleepiness. Also, they underwent an overnight in-laboratory polysomnography to assess total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep staging, apnea/hypopnea index, and periodic limb movement index. We found poor sleep efficiency in 20% of cases, and periodic limb movement index higher than 5 in 45%, and apnea/hypopnea index higher than 5 in 40%. There was significant negative correlation between sleep efficiency on one hand, and serum potassium, serum creatinine, and sleep onset on other hand (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). There was significant decrease in hemoglobin, serum iron, and transferrin saturation in patients with excess daytime sleepiness (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.010, respectively). By using multivariate linear regression analysis, we found that serum creatinine was the single independent predictor of sleep efficiency.Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is not uncommon in hemodialysis children. Our results show a lower frequency of sleep disorders in comparison with previous studies. There is a strong association between kidney dysfunction and poor sleep quality in HD children.What is known:• Sleep disturbances can adversely affect a child's daytime performance.• Sleep disorders in children with chronic kidney disease have been assessed in only a limited number of studies.What is new:• Poor sleep quality is not uncommon in hemodialysis children.• There is a strong association between kidney dysfunction and poor sleep quality in hemodialysis children.