Sleep quality (SQ) is considered to be a critical variable in major depressive syndrome (MD) as well as in burnout syndrome (B). Thus far, no study examined the differential influence of these syndromes on SQ. MD and B have been assessed in 4,415 participants at baseline and in 1,396 participants at follow-up based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to measure SQ. Based on the PHQ-9 and MBI-GS at baseline assessment, participants were divided into four groups: a control group, a MD group, a B group, and a comorbid group suffering from MD and B. Multiple regression analyses showed that all groups demonstrate significantly worse SQ than the control group, while individuals with MD showed a lower SQ compared to individuals with B. The comorbid group showed the lowest SQ. Longitudinal analyses showed a significant bidirectional association between major depressive symptoms and SQ, whereas burnout symptoms were predictive for SQ but not vice versa. The study indicates differences between MD and B with regard to SQ, suggesting worse SQ in more severely burdened groups. Major depressive symptoms are bidirectionally linked to SQ, whereas burnout symptoms are only suggested a risk factor for impaired SQ.
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